Interval training can refer to the organization of any cardiovascular workout (e.g., cycling, running, rowing). It is prominent in training routines for many sports, but is particularly employed by runners.
Some experts believe aerobic interval training may benefit exercisers by allowing them to burn more calories in a shorter period, and by improving aerobic capability at a faster rate, when compared with continuous-intensity exercise. In overweight and obese individuals, high intensity interval training employing 4 sets of 4-minute intervals has been shown to improve VO2max to a greater extent than isocaloric moderate continuous training, as well as to a greater extent than with a protocol using shorter, 1-minute intervals .
Some exercisers find interval training less monotonous than continuous-intensity exercise.A number of studies confirm that in young and healthy individuals, sprint interval training appears to be as effective as continuous endurance training of moderate intensity, and has the benefit of requiring a reduced time commitment. There is some evidence that interval training is also beneficial for older individuals and for those with coronary artery disease, but further study is required.
Interval training can improve many aspects of human physiology. In athletes, it can enhance lactate threshold and increase VO2max. Lactate threshold has been shown to be a significant factor in determining performance for long distance running events. An increase in an athlete’s VO2max allows them to intake more oxygen while exercising, enhancing the capability to sustain larger spans of aerobic effort. Studies have also shown interval training can induce endurance-like adaptions, corresponding to increased capacity for whole body and skeletal muscle lipid oxidation and enhanced peripheral vascular structure and function.
There is increasing evidence that interval training assists in managing risk factors of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. It does this by improving insulin action and sensitivity. Generating higher insulin sensitivity results in lower levels of insulin needed to lower glucose levels in the blood. This helps individuals with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome control their glucose levels. A combination of interval training and continuous exercise increases cardiovascular fitness and raises HDL-cholesterol, which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This type of training also decreases waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio(WRH), and the sum of skin folds on the body.
This method of training may be more effective at inducing fat loss than simply training at a moderate intensity for the same duration. This is due to the metabolism-boosting effects of high intensity intervals